A Jupiter Column is an archaeological monument belonging to a type widespread in Roman Germania. Such pillars express the religious beliefs of their time. They were erected in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, mostly near Roman settlements or villas in the Germanic provinces. Some examples also occur in Gaul and Britain.
The base of the monuments was normally formed by a Viergötterstein , in itself a common monument type, usually depicting Juno, Minerva, Mercury and Hercules. This would support a Wochengötterstein , which, in turn, supported a column or pillar, normally decorated with a scale pattern. The column was crowned with a statue of Jupiter, usually on horseback, trampling a Giant . In some cases , the column capital is decorated with four heads, usually interpreted as depictions of the four times of day . The total height of a Jupiter Column is normally around 4 m, but some examples are taller, e.g. a famous example at Mainz with a height of more than 9 m.
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