The Battle of Mühlberg was a large battle at Mühlberg in the Electorate of Saxony in 1547, during the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic princes of the Holy Roman Empire led by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V decisively defeated the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of Protestant princes under the command of Elector John Frederick I of Saxony and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse.
The Imperial-Spanish forces were commanded by Emperor Charles V and his commander-in-chief in Germany, Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. The Schmalkaldic League's commanders could not agree on any military actions on the battlefield, thereby allowing Charles' forces to run through the league's defences.
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