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The Siege of Landau saw an army from the Holy Roman Empire led by Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden lay siege to the fortress city of Landau which was held for the Kingdom of France. The French defenders led by Ezéchiel du Mas, Comte de Mélac resisted vigorously but were forced to surrender after a three-month leaguer. This action of the War of the Spanish Succession occurred at Landau in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, located 49 kilometres southwest of Mannheim.
The earliest actions from the war were focused in northern Italy in 1701, but military activity began in the Electoral Palatinate the following year. In the Palatinate, Louis of Baden and an Imperial army crossed the Rhine River at Speyer and moved south to invest Landau. Unwilling to challenge his stronger foes, Nicolas Catinat with his French army watched from a distance as the Landau defenses were methodically reduced by siege artillery, mining and infantry attacks. After losing a key defensive position, Mélac and his garrison were forced to capitulate. At this time, the Electorate of Bavaria became a French ally, tipping the balance of power and causing Louis of Baden to withdraw. The next clash was the Battle of Friedlingen on 14 October 1702.
The Siege of Landau saw a corps from the Kingdom of Prussia commanded by Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen lay siege to a 3,800-man French Republican garrison led by Joseph Marie Tennet de Laubadère. Since the Prussians lacked siege cannons, they tried to starve the French defenders into surrender by blockading the city. In late December, the French Army of the Moselle under Lazare Hoche and Army of the Rhine under Jean-Charles Pichegru defeated the Coalition armies opposed to them, forcing the Prussians to raise the War of the First Coalition siege.
Almost two months after Landau was surrounded, the Coalition army won a victory in the First Battle of Wissembourg, driving the Army of the Rhine deep into Alsace. The French government placed a priority on relieving Landau, so Pichegru’s army began a sustained offensive against Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser’s Coalition army in the Battle of Haguenau. The effort finally succeeded when Hoche’s army outflanked Wurmser in the Battle of Froeschwiller and then the combined French armies won the Second Battle of Wissembourg over Wurmser and Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in late December.