Gräfenthal is located in the southern Thüringer Schiefergebirge, a low mountain range south-eastern of the better known Thuringian Forest. Mountains in this region rise up to 800 meters above sea level and are usually wooded with spruce trees. 20 km north-eastern of Gräfenthal lies district town Saalfeld.
Neighboring municipalities are: Reichmannsdorf, Probstzella, Ludwigsstadt, Tettau, Oberland am Rennsteig, Piesau, Lichte, Schmiedefeld
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