Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills was one of three Royal Gunpowder Mills in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was in operation for over 300 years; however, from the mid 1850s onwards the site was involved in developing new nitro-based explosives and propellants. The site grow in size, and gunpowder became less important. Shortly after World War II it became solely a Defence Research Establishment - firstly the Explosives Research and Development Establishment, then the Propellants, Explosives and Rocket Motor Establishment Waltham Abbey; and finally the Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment Waltham Abbey. Its superior production methods and high quality results earned it a reputation on an international level and played a significant part in the rise of Great Britain as an international power.
The Royal Gunpowder Mills, Waltham Abbey, an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage, (ERIH).