Notable residents of Gower Street have included the naturalist Charles Darwin, author of The Origin of Species, the architect George Dance the Younger, painter William de Morgan, and the Shaws. John Shaw, Sr., and John Shaw, Jr., formed a famous nineteenth-century architectural partnership. Thomas Budd Shaw was a professor of English literature to the grand dukes of Russia.
The cultural Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood of painters and poets was founded in the Millais family house on Gower Street in the winter of 1848–49.
The Walloon (Belgian) poet Henri Michaux briefly resided in Gower Street in February 1931.