The Caledonian Forest is the name given to the former temperate rainforest of Scotland. The name comes to us from Pliny the Elder who reveals that 30 years after the Roman invasion of Britain their knowledge of it did not extend beyond the neighbourhood of silva caledonia. He gives no information about where the silva caledonia was, but the known extent of the Roman occupation suggest that it was north of the River Clyde and west of the River Tay.
The Scots pines of the Caledonian Forest are directly descended from the first pines to arrive in Scotland following the Late Glacial; arriving about 7000 BCE. The forest reached its maximum extent about 5000 BCE, after which the Scottish climate became wetter and windier. This changed climate reduced the extent of the forest significantly by 2000 BCE. From that date, human actions reduced it to its current extent.
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