In the Middle Ages, the town of Pinerolo was one of the main crossroads in Italy, and was therefore one of the principal fortresses of the dukes of Savoy. The reason is that it was located on a road to cross the Alps.
As a result, its military importance was the origin of the well-known military school that still exists today. The fortress of Fenestrelle is nearby.
The "Man in the Iron Mask" was imprisoned in Pinerolo. It is still not sure who that was. Voltaire claimed that it was the illegitimate brother of Louis XIV. In the late 1840s, the writer Alexandre Dumas elaborated on the theme in the final installment of his Three Musketeers saga: here it was Louis XIV's twin brother.