Emery or corundite is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder. Crushed or naturally eroded emery (known as black sand) is used as an abrasive — for example, on an emery board and emery cloth, as a traction enhancer in asphalt and tarmac mixtures. Turkey and Greece are the main suppliers of the world's emery. The Greek island of Naxos used to be the main source of this industrially important rock type. It has been mined on the eastern side of Naxos for well over two thousand years until recent times. However, demand for emery has decreased with the development of sintered carbide and oxide materials as abrasives. A small quantity of emery is used in coated abrasive products, but its main use in the United States is wear-resistant floors and pavements. Many tons are shipped to Asia to be used in grinding rice.
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