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Location address: United Kingdom, Northumberland
Number of texts: 3
Berwick upon Tweed and its castle were captured by the English in 1482 during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. By the Treaty of Fotheringhay, 11 June 1482, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, the brother of James III of Scotland declared himself King of Scotland and swore loyalty to Edward IV of England. The follow-up invasion of Scotland failed to install Albany on the throne, but the border town of Berwick upon Tweed has remained English ever since the castle surrendered on 24 August 1482. The English army left Edinburgh with a promise for the repayment of the dowry paid for the marriage Princess Cecily of England to the Scottish Prince.
The Capture of Berwick was an event in the First War of Scottish Independence which took place in April 1318. Sir James Douglas, Lord of Douglas took the town and castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed from the English, who had controlled the town since 1296.
The Capture of Berwick was the first significant battle of the First War of Scottish Independence in 1296. After a raid on Carlisle, the English, under Edward I, began the initial conquest of Scotland in the first phase of the war. They went to capture Berwick-upon-Tweed, a city that at the time sat just north of the border and was Scotland’s most important trading port. The garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, while the besieging party was led by Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. The English brutally took the city. As many as 10,000 men, women and children were killed - even a woman giving birth was hacked to pieces during her labour. Then they took the castle, whereupon Douglas surrendered and his life and those of his garrison were spared.