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Location address: France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Number of texts: 3
The Siege of Calais began in 1346, early in the Hundred Years’ War (1337 to 1453). Edward III of England asserted dominion over France, and defeated the French navy in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. He went on to make raids throughout Normandy, the last of which led to the Battle of Crécy in 1346. By then, Edward’s army in France required supplies and reinforcements from Flanders, so they withdrew to the north. English ships had already left Normandy for England. Edward needed a defensible port where his army could regroup and be resupplied.
The Siege of Calais (1940) was a battle for the port and town of Calais during the German blitzkrieg which overran northern France in 1940. It immediately preceded Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force through Dunkirk.
The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Pale of Calais had been ruled by England since 1347, during the Hundred Years War. By the 1550s, England was ruled by Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain. When the Kingdom of England supported a Spanish invasion of France, Henry II of France sent Francis Duke of Guise against English-held Calais, defended by Lord Thomas Wentworth, Baron Wentworth. Following failure in mid-1557, a renewed attack captured the outlying forts of Nieullay and Rysbank and Calais was besieged. When the city capitulated, England lost her last territory in France.