Île aux Basques is a Canadian island located in the lower estuary of the St. Lawrence River, about 5 kilometres north of Trois-Pistoles, in Les Basques Regional County Municipality of the Bas-Saint-Laurent region of Quebec. The island is part of the municipality of Notre-Dame-des-Neiges.
It is, since its acquisition by Société Provancher in 1929, a protected area as a sanctuary for migratory birds. From 1584 until about 1637 it was occupied several times by the Basques, after whom the island takes its name. Both the lack of space in the Basque Country and the abundance of whales in the St. Lawrence River led to the arrival of the Basque fishermen to the island. The Basque Country was divided between the Crown of France and the Crown of Spain since the 1512 Spanish invasion of the Kingdom of Navarre.
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