Neanderthals , more rarely known as Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99.7% of their DNA and are hence closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia. Fossil evidence suggests Neanderthals evolved in Europe, separate from modern humans in Africa for more than 400,000 years. They are considered either a distinct species, Homo neanderthalensis, or more rarely as a subspecies of Homo sapiens .
Neanderthals left hundreds of lithic assemblages in Europe and in Western Asia. Almost all of them are of the so-called Mousterian techno-complex, which begins c. 160,000 years ago when the makers started making fewer hand axes, and instead started to make tools out of flakes.
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