The Battle of Fürth was fought on September 3, 1632 between the Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant forces of King Gustavus II of Sweden during the period of Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years War. The tactical victory by the Catholic forces allowed the Habsburg army to quickly attack into Saxony, while Gustav's forces were forced into retreat.
Fürth was a market town, whose marketing license had been suspended under Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich III, losing the privilege and all that went with it, to nearby Nürnberg shortly after its founding. This situation changed after Heinrich's death, and in 1062 Fürth was once again permitted to have its own market. However, Fürth could not readily compete with Nuremberg, which had steadily grown and prospered in the ensuing years. In the following centuries, the City of Nuremberg became the most important town in the region, even making Fürth subservient to it at one point, despite Fürth's strategic importance. The character of the settlement of Fürth remained afterward largely agricultural. Consequently, in 1600 the population was probably still only 1000–2000.
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